Eliud Kipchoge, 34, covered the 26.2 miles (42.2km) in one hour 59 minutes 40 seconds in the Ineos 1:59 Challenge in Vienna, Austria on Saturday.
It will not be recognised as the official marathon world record because it was not in open competition and he used a team of rotating pacemakers.
Kipchoge was assisted by a team of 42 pacemakers, including Olympic 1500m champion Matthew Centrowitz, Olympic 5,000m silver medallist Paul Chelimo and the Ingebrigtsen brothers Jakob, Filip and Henrik.
They rotated in and out, running in formation around Kipchoge, with former 1500m and 5,000m world champion Bernard Lagat anchoring the final leg.
“They are among the best athletes in the world – so thank you,” added Kipchoge. “I appreciate them for accepting this job. We did this one together.”
“This shows no-one is limited,” said Kipchoge.
“Now I’ve done it, I am expecting more people to do it after me.”
“I’m feeling good. After Roger Bannister made history, it took me another 65 years. I’ve tried but I’ve done it,” said the Kenyan.
“This shows the positivity of sport. I want to make it a clean and interesting sport. Together when we run, we can make it a beautiful world.”